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GRIP STRENGTH TEST
(Model: BIO-GS3)
An easy way to objectively quantify the muscular strength of rodents (mouse and rat), and to assess the effect of drugs, toxins, muscular (i.e. myopathy) and neurodegenerative diseases on muscular degeneration. Widely used in conjunction with the ROTAROD motor coordination test, since a normally coordinated rodent will show a low score if its muscular strength is low, the Grip Strength Test for rats and mice is a must for your research on activity, motor control & coordination, and is particularly well suited for studies on Parkinson’s & Huntington’s disease.

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  • HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL Charlestown, USA
  • NIH Rockville, USA
  • MOREHOUSE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Atlanta, USA
  • UCSF-GALL0 CENTER Emeryville, USA
  • UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA Tampa Frorida, USA
  • UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA Georgia, USA
  • CORIMMUN GMBH Martinsried, Germany
  • TAKEDA CAMBRIDGE Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND Baltimore, USA
  • UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURY Missoury, USA
  • ABBOTT GMBH & KO Ludwigshafen, Germany
  • WELLCOME TRUST SANGER INSTITUTE Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  • ADDEX PHARMACEUTICALS Archamps, France
  • HELMHOLTZ ZENTRUM MÜNCHEN Munich, Germany
  • BIOCODEX Compiegne, France
  • UPRES Marseille, France
  • MDS PHARMA St Germain sur L'Arbresle, France
  • ECOLE VETERINAIRE ALFORT Maison Arfor, France
  • GUERICKE UNIVERSITY Magdeburg, Germany
  • FACULTE DE MEDECINE Namur, Belgium
  • LAB RESEARCH Veszprem, Hungary
  • NEURAXO BIOPHARMACEUTICALS Dusseldorf, Germany
  • INSERM Grenoble, France
  • HARWELL SCIENCE AND INNOVATION Didcot, United Kingdom
  • NOVARTIS Basel, Switzerland
  • LAB DE NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Bruxelles, Belgium
  • IGBMC Strasbourg, France
  • ICS Strasbourg, France
  • COLLEGE DE France Paris, France
  • PHARMACOLGIE Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • MDS L’ARBRESLE
  • UNIVERSITE LOUIS PASTEUR Strasbourg, France
  • IPSEN BEAUFOUR Les Ulis,France
  • GENEVA UNIVERSITY PHARMACOLOGY Geneva, Switzerland
  • ERAMUS UNIVESITY ROTTERDAM Rotterdam, Netherlands
  • INSERM Paris, France
  • JAGIELLOXIAN UNIVERSITY Kralow, Poland
  • INSERM Nantes, France
  • TROPHOS Marseille, France
  • BAYER CROP SCIENCE Nice, France
  • CNRS Paris, Strasbourg, Nantes, Orleans, Clermont-Ferrand, Orsay, Yvette & Marseille, France
  • FAUST PHARMACEUTICALS Illkrich, France
  • PIERRE FABRE Castres & Tours, France
  • EMBL Monterodondo, Italy
  • GLAXO SK UK Ware, United Kingdom
  • PARADIGM Pharmaceutical Singapore
  • EPFL Lausanne, Switzerland
  • NOVARTIS Basel, Switzerland
  • NEUROFIT Illkrich, Switzerland
  • SANOFI Vitry, Toulouse & Montpellier, France
  • SERVIER Croissy sur Seine, France
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! NEW RESEARCH WORK ! A recent publication by C. Mobley, P. Mumford, W. Kephart, C. Haun, A. Holland, D. Beck, J. Martin, K. Young, R. Anderson, R. Patel, G. Langston, R. Lowery, J. Wilson, M. Roberts in "Frontiers in Physiology" highlights the merits of using Bioseb's Grip strength test: Aging in Rats Differentially Affects Markers of Transcriptional and Translational Capacity in Soleus and Plantaris Muscle

Aging in Rats Differentially Affects Markers of Transcriptional and Translational Capacity in Soleus and Plantaris Muscle
C. Mobley, P. Mumford, W. Kephart, C. Haun, A. Holland, D. Beck, J. Martin, K. Young, R. Anderson, R. Patel, G. Langston, R. Lowery, J. Wilson, M. Roberts
College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, AL, 
Published in "Frontiers in Physiology" (2017-07-20)


Alterations in transcriptional and translational mechanisms occur during skeletal muscle aging and such changes may contribute to age-related atrophy. Herein, we examined markers related to global transcriptional output (i.e., myonuclear number, total mRNA and RNA pol II levels), translational efficiency [i.e., eukaryotic initiation and elongation factor levels and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) levels] and translational capacity (ribosome density) in the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles of male Fischer 344 rats aged 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 9-10 per group). We also examined alterations in markers of proteolysis and oxidative stress in these muscles (i.e., 20S proteasome activity, poly-ubiquinated protein levels and 4-HNE levels). Notable plantaris muscle observations included: (a) fiber cross sectional area (CSA) was 59% (p < 0.05) and 48% (p < 0.05) greater in 12 month vs. 3 month and 24 month rats, respectively, suggesting a peak lifetime value near 12 months and age-related atrophy by 24 months, (b) MPS levels were greatest in 18 month rats (p < 0.05) despite the onset of atrophy, (c) while regulators of ribosome biogenesis [c-Myc and upstream binding factor (UBF) protein levels] generally increased with age, ribosome density linearly decreased from 3 months of age and RNA polymerase (Pol) I protein levels were lowest in 24 month rats, and d) 20S proteasome activity was robustly up-regulated in 6 and 24 month rats (p < 0.05). Notable soleus muscle observations included: (a) fiber CSA was greatest in 6 month rats and was maintained in older age groups, and (b) 20S proteasome activity was modestly but significantly greater in 24 month vs. 3/12/18 month rats (p < 0.05), and (c) total mRNA levels (suggestive of transcriptional output) trended downward in older rats despite non-significant between-group differences in myonuclear number and/or RNA Pol II protein levels. Collectively, these findings suggest that plantaris, not soleus, atrophy occurs following 12 months of age in male Fisher rats and this may be due to translational deficits (i.e., changes in MPS and ribosome density) and/or increases in proteolysis rather than increased oxidative stress and/or alterations in global transcriptional mechanisms.

Bioseb Grip Test for Rodents (rats and mice): close-up

Grip Test: Mouse on the grid
Presentation

BIOSEB's Grip Strength Test allows the study of neuromuscular functions by determining the maximal peak force developed by a rodent (rat or mouse) when the operator tries to pull it out of a specially designed grid or bar, which are available for both fore and hind limbs. The Grip Test has been documented in numerous literature, and is included in the Functional Observational Battery (FOB) to screen for neurobehavioral toxicity. In this context, changes in grip strength peak values of rodents (rats or mice) are interpreted as evidence of motor neurotoxicity.

This force assessment is widely used in conjunction with the ROTAROD motor coordination test, since a normally coordinated rodent will show a low score if its muscular strength is low.

The current Grip Strength Test apparatus is the third version based on Bioseb's methodology. The first version was developed in 1999, and Bioseb's Grip Strength Test now counts hundreds of users around the world !

You can click on following links to visit the webpage of researchers using our instrument for their work on CNS (Central Nervous System) disorders, neuromuscular investigation and drug assessment:
Bioseb's Grip Test Page of the Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS), Strasbourg, France
Bioseb's Grip Test Page of the MRC Harwell Internation Center for Mouse Genetics, Oxford, United Kingdom
Grip Test Protocol by the European Mouse Phenotyping Resource of Standardised Screens (PDF file)

Operating principle

Bioseb’s Grip Strength Test for mice and rats is simple to operate : the grip strength meter is positioned horizontally and the subjects are held by the tail and lowered towards the apparatus. The animals (rat or mouse) are allowed to grab the metal grid or triangular pull bar and are then pulled backwards in the horizontal plane. The force applied to the grid or to the bar just before it loses grip is recorded as the peak tension.

The measurement is accomplished using a highly accurate sensor (same sensor for rats and mice) and an electronic device offering a sampling rate of 1000 Hz. This ensures that the maximum force is perfectly captured and displayed, even for short and low force peaks - this is especially useful when grip testing mice.

Measurements can be recorded and displayed in grams, newtons, or lbs. The unit is directly selected on the keyboard. Data output is available through a RS232 port, a printer, or a graphic recorder. Individual measurements (up to 100) are stored in an internal memory, and can be downloaded after the experiment.
Grip Strength Test: Grids for Rat & Mouse, Bars for Rat & Mouse
Grids for Rat & Mouse, Bars for Mouse & Rat


Key features

The new Bioseb GRIP TEST Version 3+ offers unique features:

A single instrument for mice and rats, which may be used as a stand alone tool or connected to a printer or a PC
Accessories to measure from the front paws, back paws, or the 4 paws, in a mesh grid or in a bar version (see opposite illustration)
Easy to operate and calibrate:
1. Hold the animal by the tail or the neck's skin.
2. Move the animal down until it grasps the grid/bar.
3. Pull the animal along the sensor axle until grip is released.


An embedded statistical computation has been included in the electronic device. This is a very useful feature that as been very well received and used by users of large numbers of tests. The display shows in real time the mean, standard deviation and variation coefficient from groups of animals. This feature allows also to cancel any grip strength test not correctly performed.

The optional Bioseb’s Bio-CIS software sends datas acquired via the Grip Test into a MS Excel sheet using the RS232 port. Easy to set up, this soft interface uses the full power of MS EXCEL functions, to let you create statistical tables and graphics.

Bioseb Grip Strength Test for mice and rats: Screenshot showing statistical computations and peak force
Grip Test: Screenshots
Embedded statistics module : a new development by Bioseb allows direct reading of the average value, standard deviation and variability for several subjects groups and up to 100 animals. This feature allows also to cancel any grip strength test not correctly performed.
Very fast sampling rate of 1000Hz, to secure the repeatability in the “peak” force capture and measurement
Highly reliable sensors, 0.1% of full scale and a fine resolution (resolution is user-settable as low as 0,1g)
Internal memory for measured data, up to 100 values can be stored manually, to be edited or downloaded later
• Data is stored in memory as a table with time/measured force
• Built-in RS 232 port allowing transfer of data to a PC or a printer
Optional Bioseb Bio-CIS Software allowing user to send measured values directly into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet


Supplied with

1 stand and counter weight, 1 grip accessory (to be chosen among the available models described above), power supply adaptor (100-240 V), user manual and tutorial.

Special model upon request

Higher capacity (marmoset), double sensor, Meyer's method (double gauge, front to front). Please enquire


Domains of application

• Neuromuscular diseases
• Phenotyping
• Drug screening
• Parkinson disease
• Huntington disease
• Aging

Publications (Click on an article to show details and read the abstract)

PAIN
- Mechanical allodynia & hyperlagesia -
Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain. (2010)
Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain.
X. Pichon, A. Wattiez, C. Becamel, I. Ehrlich, J. Bockaert, et al.
Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, Pharmacologie fondamentale et clinique de la Douleur, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Published in "Molecular Therapy" (2010-08-08)

Antidepressants are one of the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Despite the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in pain modulation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are less effective than tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we show, in diabetic neuropathic rats, an alteration of the antihyperalgesic effect induced by stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors, which are known to mediate SSRI-induced analgesia. 5-HT(2A) receptor density was not changed in the spinal cord of diabetic rats, whereas postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the PSD-95/disc large suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain containing proteins interacting with these receptors, was upregulated. Intrathecal injection of a cell-penetrating peptidyl mimetic of the 5-HT(2A) receptor C-terminus, which disrupts 5-HT(2A) receptor-PDZ protein interactions, induced an antihyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats, which results from activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors by endogenous 5-HT. The peptide also enhanced antihyperalgesia induced by the SSRI fluoxetine. Its effects likely resulted from an increase in receptor responsiveness, because it revealed functional 5-HT(2A) receptor-operated Ca(2+) responses in neurons, an effect mimicked by knockdown of PSD-95. Hence, 5-HT(2A) receptor/PDZ protein interactions might contribute to the resistance to SSRI-induced analgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy. Disruption of these interactions might be a valuable strategy to design novel treatments for neuropathic pain and to increase the effectiveness of SSRIs.

- Neuropathic pain -
Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain. (2010)
Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain.
X. Pichon, A. Wattiez, C. Becamel, I. Ehrlich, J. Bockaert, et al.
Clermont Université, Université d'Auvergne, Pharmacologie fondamentale et clinique de la Douleur, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Published in "Molecular Therapy" (2010-08-08)

Antidepressants are one of the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Despite the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in pain modulation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are less effective than tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we show, in diabetic neuropathic rats, an alteration of the antihyperalgesic effect induced by stimulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors, which are known to mediate SSRI-induced analgesia. 5-HT(2A) receptor density was not changed in the spinal cord of diabetic rats, whereas postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the PSD-95/disc large suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain containing proteins interacting with these receptors, was upregulated. Intrathecal injection of a cell-penetrating peptidyl mimetic of the 5-HT(2A) receptor C-terminus, which disrupts 5-HT(2A) receptor-PDZ protein interactions, induced an antihyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats, which results from activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors by endogenous 5-HT. The peptide also enhanced antihyperalgesia induced by the SSRI fluoxetine. Its effects likely resulted from an increase in receptor responsiveness, because it revealed functional 5-HT(2A) receptor-operated Ca(2+) responses in neurons, an effect mimicked by knockdown of PSD-95. Hence, 5-HT(2A) receptor/PDZ protein interactions might contribute to the resistance to SSRI-induced analgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy. Disruption of these interactions might be a valuable strategy to design novel treatments for neuropathic pain and to increase the effectiveness of SSRIs.

Behavioral and pharmacological description of oxaliplatin-induced painful neuropathy in rat. (2007)
Behavioral and pharmacological description of oxaliplatin-induced painful neuropathy in rat.
B. Ling, N. Authier, D. Balayssac, A. Eschalier, F. Coudore.
Université Clermont1, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Published in "Pain" (2007-04-30)

We describe an animal model of nociceptive sensory neuropathy induced by repeat intravenous administration of oxaliplatin in which treated animals partly reproduce the characteristic pain symptoms in oxaliplatin-treated patients. We tested the ability of 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg oxaliplatin doses injected twice-weekly for four-and-a-half consecutive weeks to induce a nociceptive peripheral neuropathy in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The behavioral assessment revealed cold allodynia (10 °C) and hyperalgesia (4 °C) symptoms associated with a mechanical allodynia. The rats maintained a good general clinical status without motor dysfunction. The 2 mg/kg oxaliplatin dose and the tail-immersion test in cold water (10 °C) were selected to compare pharmacological sensitivity between single administered drugs as morphine, lidocaine, carbamazepine, gabapentin and repeated administration of drugs as clomipramine, venlafaxine, calcium and magnesium solutions. Magnesium solution (90 mg/kg) and venlafaxine (7.5 mg/kg) administration induced an antinociceptive effect whereas gabapentin (300 mg/kg), clomipramine (2.5 mg/kg) and lidocaine (3 and 6 mg/kg) only induced an antiallodynic effect.

Assessment of nociception in acrylamide-induced neuropathy in rats. (2005)
Assessment of nociception in acrylamide-induced neuropathy in rats.
B. Ling, N. Authier, D. Balayssac, A. Eschalier, F. Coudore.
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Published in "Pain" (2005-12-15)

Acrylamide was intraperitoneally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats at four different doses (5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) three times a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Because of motor dysfunction, the 30 mg/kg dose was not used for behavioral pain tests. Clinical status remained good throughout the experiment and no motor deficit was observed at the other doses. We showed that acrylamide administration at low doses and cumulative dose (CD) range of 35–140 mg/kg produced mechanical allodynia and rapid, marked heat (42 °C) and cold (10 °C) allodynia after tail immersion test. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia appeared after higher cumulative doses (70–280 mg/kg), except for cold (4 °C) hyperalgesia (20–80 mg/kg). All the modifications persisted throughout all study, except the mechanical hyperalgia. All the cumulative doses tested were lower than those generally reported to induce motor dysfunction (CD>250 mg/kg), confirming that CD may be considered to be a suitable index in assessing neurological signs and suggesting that early detection of acrylamide neurotoxicity would be possible using the sensory tests, especially those for detecting allodynia thresholds.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
- Brain fonctions -
Micropatterned bioimplant with guided neuronal cells to promote tissue reconstruction and improve functional recovery after primary motor cortex insult (2015)
Micropatterned bioimplant with guided neuronal cells to promote tissue reconstruction and improve functional recovery after primary motor cortex insult
Vaysse L, Beduer A, Sol JC, Vieu C, Loubinoux I
INSERM, UMR 825 Imagerie Cérébrale et Handicaps Neurologiques, F-31024 Toulouse, France;
Published in "Biomaterials." (2015-07-01)

With the ever increasing incidence of brain injury, developing new tissue engineering strategies to promote neural tissue regeneration is an enormous challenge. The goal of this study was to design and evaluate an implantable scaffold capable of directing neurite and axonal growth for neuronal brain tissue regeneration. We have previously shown in cell culture conditions that engineered micropatterned PDMS surface with straight microchannels allow directed neurite growth without perturbing cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth. In this study, the micropatterned PDMS device pre-seeded with hNT2 neuronal cells were implanted in rat model of primary motor cortex lesion which induced a strong motor deficit. Functional recovery was assessed by the forelimb grip strength test during 3 months post implantation. Results show a more rapid and efficient motor recovery with the hNT2 neuroimplants associated with an increase of neuronal tissue reconstruction and cell survival. This improvement is also hastened when compared to a direct cell graft of ten times more cells. Histological analyses showed that the implant remained structurally intact and we did not see any evidence of inflammatory reaction. In conclusion, PDMS bioimplants with guided neuronal cells seem to be a promising approach for supporting neural tissue reconstruction after central brain injury.

Activated astrocytes enhance the dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells and promote brain repair through ?bFGF (2014)
Activated astrocytes enhance the dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells and promote brain repair through ?bFGF
Fan Yang, Yunhui Liu, Jie Tu, Jun Wan, Jie Zhang, Bifeng Wu, Shanping Chen, Jiawei Zhou, Yangling Mu & Liping Wang
Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China
Published in "Nature Communications" (2014-12-17)

Astrocytes provide neuroprotective effects against degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and play a fundamental role in DA differentiation of neural stem cells. Here we show that light illumination of astrocytes expressing engineered channelrhodopsin variant (ChETA) can remarkably enhance the release of ?basic fibroblast growth factor (?bFGF) and significantly promote the DA differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro. Light activation of transplanted astrocytes in the substantia nigra (SN) also upregulates ?bFGF levels in vivo and promotes the regenerative effects of co-transplanted stem cells. Importantly, upregulation of ?bFGF levels, by specific light activation of endogenous astrocytes in the SN, enhances the DA differentiation of transplanted stem cells and promotes brain repair in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our study indicates that astrocyte-derived ?bFGF is required for regulation of DA differentiation of the stem cells and may provide a strategy targeting astrocytes for treatment of PD.



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Sensor Capacity 0 - 2 kg (20N)
Other capacities on request.
Accuracy 0,1 % of full scale
Resolution 0.1 g
Sampling resolution 1000 Hz
Data Output RS232 for computer, analog output for graphic recorders
Internal memory 100 individual values
Overall dimensions 400x180x200 mm for the Single grip model
and 750 x 180 x 200 mm for the Double grip model
(can be used to measure fore + back limbs ).
Power supply Power adaptor (100-240 V) or battery
Grid and Bars Stainless steel, allowing sterilization, with a specific design to protect the animal paws from injuries, different grids and bars are available depending on the specie and the limbs to be tested.
Example dimensions of the Mouse Grid 100 x 80 mm, angled 20° (other on request).
Special models To measure independently right and left forelimbs, To grip test small monkeys …

Model:
BIO-GS3
Grip strength test (Modif.)
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Related products:
BIO-CIS
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Accessories :
BIO-GRIPGS
Grid for mice (Modif.)
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BIO-GRIPBR
Bar for rats (Modif.)
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BIO-GRIPBS
Bar for mice (Modif.)
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BIO-GRIPGR
Grid for rats (Modif.)
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BIO-MIT-SPC
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Bioseb - In Vivo Research Instruments
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