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OXYLET, INDIRECT CALORIMETER
(Model: OXYLET - For Rodents)
The OXYLET system - Physiocage is a modular system allowing the integration
of respiratory metabolism (O2 consumption / CO2 production),
food & drink intake, activity and rearing measurements
in specifically adapted home cages in rodents.


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! NEW RESEARCH WORK ! A recent publication by Nguyen KP, O'Neal TJ, Bolonduro OA, White E, Kravitz AV in "J Neurosci Methods." highlights the merits of using Bioseb's OXYLET, Indirect Calorimeter: Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): A flexible open-source device for measuring feeding behavior

Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): A flexible open-source device for measuring feeding behavior
Nguyen KP, O'Neal TJ, Bolonduro OA, White E, Kravitz AV
Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10-CRC, Room 5-5932, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Published in "J Neurosci Methods." (2016-07-15)


BACKGROUND:

Measuring food intake in rodents is a conceptually simple yet labor-intensive and temporally-imprecise task. Most commonly, food is weighed manually, with an interval of hours or days between measurements. Commercial feeding monitors are excellent, but are costly and require specialized caging and equipment.

NEW METHOD:

We have developed the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): a low-cost, open-source, home cage-compatible feeding system. FED utilizes an Arduino microcontroller and open-source software and hardware. FED dispenses a single food pellet into a food well where it is monitored by an infrared beam. When the mouse removes the pellet, FED logs the timestamp to a secure digital (SD) card and dispenses a new pellet into the well. Post-hoc analyses of pellet retrieval timestamps reveal high-resolution details about feeding behavior.

RESULTS:

FED is capable of accurately measuring food intake, identifying discrete trends during light and dark-cycle feeding. Additionally, we show the utility of FED for measuring increases in feeding resulting from optogenetic stimulation of agouti-related peptide neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.

COMPARISON TO EXISTING METHODS:

With a cost of ?$350 per device, FED is >10× cheaper than commercially available feeding systems. FED is also self-contained, battery powered, and designed to be placed in standard colony rack cages, allowing for monitoring of true home cage feeding behavior. Moreover, FED is highly adaptable and can be synchronized with emerging techniques in neuroscience, such as optogenetics, as we demonstrate here. CONCLUSIONS:

FED allows for accurate, precise monitoring of feeding behavior in a home cage setting.

Présentation

Respiratory metabolism is evaluated by means of indirect calorimetry an optimized system for studies on laboratory rodents (mice and rats).

Operating principle

Food drink intake and activity are evaluated using a weight transducer technology. This technology allows the continuous assessment of the animal food and drink consumption as well as spontaneous activity with highest accuracy and stability.
Rearing assessment requires simply an additional InfraRed (IR) frame connected to the system. The modular design provides easily expandability for any of the options of the system.
The researcher can select only those components of initial interest... but with the flexibility of adding others at a later date.

Special Oxylet configurations are available for performing calorimetry studies with rat neonates or during treadmill experiments.




One of the main innovation of the OXYLET system is that to give an accurate measure it does not need the traditionnal air drying units or dessicant columns that can be found in older technology systems. Another strong point is the use of high sensitive sensors with a very fast response time for both O2 and CO2 measures.
Standard airtight cages enable to follow up rodent metabolism for several hours. Airtight Home cages are suggested with food and drink distributors when several days studies have to be performed.

Parameters measured

• O2 consumption
• CO2 production
• Respiratory quotient
• Energetic exchange
• Food consumption by user-defined interval of time
• Drink consumption by user-defined interval of time
• Mean activity by user-defined interval of time
• Number of rearing by user-defined interval of time

Key features

• Easily expandable system available in different configuration
• Highly sensitive and stable sensors for O2 and CO2
• Optimized for rat and mice
• Laser sensor for lower influence of air humidity on the measurement of O2/CO2 gas
• The monitoring of the food and drink consumption and activity uses the newly adapted weight transducer technology, providing a higher accuracy
• External Food and Drink dispensers avoid any influence on the living space of the subject as well as unwanted artifacts
• Registers the absorbed food & drink and its wastage by the means of specifically adapted systems
• Rearing can be assessed using an additional InfraRed Frame

Domaines of application

This apparatus is specially recommanded for studies in the following fields:
• Anorexy and its treatments
• Addiction/aversion to specific substances
• Energy dispense associated with hunger and satiation
• Diabetes and its treatment
• …

Publications (Click on an article to show details and read the abstract)

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
- Brain fonctions -
Food Intake Adaptation to Dietary Fat Involves PSA-Dependent Rewiring of the Arcuate Melanocortin System in Mice (2012)
Food Intake Adaptation to Dietary Fat Involves PSA-Dependent Rewiring of the Arcuate Melanocortin System in Mice
Alexandre Benani, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Alexandra Gouazé, Xavier Fioramonti, Xavier Brenachot, Christophe Guissard, Alice Krezymon, Thibaut Duparc, André Colom, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Caroline Rigault, Aleth Lemoine, Jean Gascuel, Rita Gerardy-Schahn, Philippe Valet, Claude Knauf, Anne Lorsignol, and Luc Pénicaud
Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France / INSERM, Toulouse, France / Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
Published in "The Journal of Neuroscience" (2012-08-29)

Hormones such as leptin and ghrelin can rapidly rewire hypothalamic feeding circuits when injected into rodent brains. These experimental manipulations suggest that the hypothalamus might reorganize continually in adulthood to integrate the metabolic status of the whole body. In this study, we examined whether hypothalamic plasticity occurs in naive animals according to their nutritional conditions. For this purpose, we fed mice with a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) and assessed brain remodeling through its molecular and functional signature. We found that HFD for 3 d rewired the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, increasing the anorexigenic tone due to activated pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. We identified the polysialic acid molecule (PSA) as a mediator of the diet-induced rewiring of arcuate POMC. Moreover, local pharmacological inhibition and genetic disruption of the PSA signaling limits the behavioral and metabolic adaptation to HFD, as treated mice failed to normalize energy intake and showed increased body weight gain after the HFD challenge. Altogether, these findings reveal the existence of physiological hypothalamic rewiring involved in the homeostatic response to dietary fat. Furthermore, defects in the hypothalamic plasticity-driven adaptive response to HFD are obesogenic and could be involved in the development of metabolic diseases.

Dysregulation of energy homeostasis in mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in the brain. (2005)
Dysregulation of energy homeostasis in mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in the brain.
G. Bienvenu, D. Seurin, Y. Le Bouc, P. Even, S. Babajko et al.
National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) Unit 515, St-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France ; National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA), Integrated Research Unit (UMR) 914, Paris, France ; National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS
Published in "Diabetologia" (2005-06-30)

Aims/hypothesis: IGFs, IGF receptors and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system. To investigate the physiological significance of IGFBP-6 in the brain we established two transgenic mouse lines overexpressing human (h)-IGFBP-6 under the control of glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Increasing evidence suggests that insulin/IGF signalling pathways could be implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis. We explored the impact of brain IGFBP-6 overexpression on the regulation of food intake and energy balance.  Methods: Transgenic mice were fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet for up to 3 months. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out before and after the diet period. Plasma parameters (insulin, leptin, glucose, NEFAs and triglycerides) were measured, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) expression was quantified in brown adipose tissue. Oxygen consumption was also measured in both groups. Results: The transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 months developed obesity, showing increases in plasma leptin, glucose and insulin levels and mild insulin resistance. As compared with wild-type mice, no significant differences were found in the quantity of food intake. However, UCP-1 expression was down-regulated in the brown adipose tissue of the transgenic mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Our results show that brain IGFBP-6 has an impact on the regulation of energy homeostasis. These transgenic h-IGFBP-6 mice may be considered a new tool for studies of the involvement of the brain IGF system in metabolism control and obesity.

- Spinal Cord -
Dysregulation of energy homeostasis in mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in the brain. (2005)
Dysregulation of energy homeostasis in mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in the brain.
G. Bienvenu, D. Seurin, Y. Le Bouc, P. Even, S. Babajko et al.
National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) Unit 515, St-Antoine Hospital, Paris, France ; National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA), Integrated Research Unit (UMR) 914, Paris, France ; National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS
Published in "Diabetologia" (2005-06-30)

Aims/hypothesis: IGFs, IGF receptors and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are widely expressed in the central nervous system. To investigate the physiological significance of IGFBP-6 in the brain we established two transgenic mouse lines overexpressing human (h)-IGFBP-6 under the control of glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Increasing evidence suggests that insulin/IGF signalling pathways could be implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of energy homeostasis. We explored the impact of brain IGFBP-6 overexpression on the regulation of food intake and energy balance.  Methods: Transgenic mice were fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet for up to 3 months. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out before and after the diet period. Plasma parameters (insulin, leptin, glucose, NEFAs and triglycerides) were measured, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) expression was quantified in brown adipose tissue. Oxygen consumption was also measured in both groups. Results: The transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 months developed obesity, showing increases in plasma leptin, glucose and insulin levels and mild insulin resistance. As compared with wild-type mice, no significant differences were found in the quantity of food intake. However, UCP-1 expression was down-regulated in the brown adipose tissue of the transgenic mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Our results show that brain IGFBP-6 has an impact on the regulation of energy homeostasis. These transgenic h-IGFBP-6 mice may be considered a new tool for studies of the involvement of the brain IGF system in metabolism control and obesity.

MOTOR CONTROL
- Motor Deficits -
Progressive motor and respiratory metabolism deficits in post-weaning Mecp2- male mice. (2011)
Progressive motor and respiratory metabolism deficits in post-weaning Mecp2- male mice.
M. Pratte, N. Panayotis, A. Ghata, L. Villard, J.-C. Roux.
Faculté de Médecine de La Timone, Marseille, France.
Published in "Behavioural Brain Research" (2011-01-01)

The methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2) gene encodes a nuclear transcriptional modulator highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations of this gene cause a large spectrum of neurological disorders in humans. Several lines of mice harboring a constitutional deletion of Mecp2 are available. The use of these models is crucial to understand the basis of Mecp2-related pathologies. However, most of the studies performed using these lines focused on different postnatal time points. The aim of the present study was to provide a more complete description of the behavioral phenotype of the Mecp2(tm1.1Bird) mice. To this aim, we used a modified version of the SHIRPA protocol and a set of sensorimotor tests and respiratory metabolism measurements, in a longitudinal study of the Mecp2- male mice (Mecp2(-/y)) from three weeks (weaning) to eight weeks of age. Our data document, for the first time, the sequential appearance of the in vivo deficits in this mouse line. The observed deficits initially concern major parameters (such as body weight), and are followed by involuntary and sensitive defects (reflexes). Subsequently, motor functions and respiratory metabolism are severally impaired. A detailed description of these gradual defects may help to identify their neuronal origin and to elaborate novel therapeutic strategies.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM
- Skeletal functions -
Apelin Treatment Increases Complete Fatty Acid Oxidation, Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity, and Biogenesis in Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Mice. (2012)
Apelin Treatment Increases Complete Fatty Acid Oxidation, Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity, and Biogenesis in Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Mice.
C. Attané, C. Foussal, S. Le Gonidec, A. Benani, D. Daviaud et al.
INSERM U1048, Toulouse, France.
Published in "Diabetes" (2012-02-01)

Both acute and chronic apelin treatment have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. However, the effects of apelin on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) during obesity-related insulin resistance have not yet been addressed. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic treatment on lipid use, especially in skeletal muscles. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice treated by an apelin injection (0.1 _mol/kg/day i.p.) during 4 weeks had decreased fat mass, glycemia, and plasma levels of triglycerides and were protected from hyperinsulinemia compared with HFD PBS-treated mice. Indirect calorimetry experiments showed that apelin-treated mice had a better use of lipids. The complete FAO, the oxidative capacity, and mitochondrial biogenesis were increased in soleus of apelin-treated mice. The action of apelin was AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dependent since all the effects studied were abrogated in HFD apelin-treated mice with muscle-specific inactive AMPK. Finally, the apelin-stimulated improvement of oxidative capacity led to decreased levels of acylcarnitines and enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus. Thus, by promoting complete lipid use in muscle of insulin-resistant mice through mitochondrial biogenesis and tighter matching between FAO and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, apelin treatment could contribute to insulin sensitivity improvement.

Constitutive expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mobility and overweight in mice. (2009)
Constitutive expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mobility and overweight in mice.
P. Lebrun, E. Cognard, R. Bellon-Paul, P. Gontard, C. Filloux et al.
INSERM, Unit 907, Avenue de Valombrose, 06107 Nice, France.
Published in "Diabetologia" (2009-10-30)

Aims/hypothesis: Due to their ability to regulate various signalling pathways (cytokines, hormones, growth factors), the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are thought to be promising therapeutic targets for metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Hence, their role in vivo has to be precisely determined. Methods: We generated transgenic mice constitutively producing SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle to define whether the sole abundance of SOCS-3 is sufficient to induce metabolic disorders and whether SOCS-3 is implicated in physiological roles distinct from metabolism. Results: We demonstrate here that chronic expression of SOCS-3 in skeletal muscle leads to overweight in mice and worsening of high-fat diet-induced systemic insulin resistance. Counter-intuitively, insulin sensitivity in muscle of transgenic mice appears to be unaltered. However, following constitutive SOCS-3 production, several genes had deregulated expression, among them other members of the SOCS family. This could maintain the insulin signal into skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we found that SOCS-3 interacts with calcineurin, which has been implicated in muscle contractility. In Socs-3 transgenic muscle, this leads to delocalisation of calcineurin to the fibre periphery. Relevant to this finding, Socs-3 transgenic animals had dilatation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum associated with swollen mitochondria and decreased voluntary activity. Conclusions/interpretation: Our results show that constitutive SOCS-3 production in skeletal muscle is not in itself sufficient to induce the establishment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. In contrast, we reveal a novel role of SOCS-3, which appears to be important for muscle integrity and locomotor activity.        




Model:
OXYLET
OXYLET, Indirect Calorimeter (Modif.)
For Rodents Contact us

Accessories :
LE1301
Home cage for mice and rats (requires cage accessories) (Modif.)
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LE1302
Airtight lid for rats (Modif.)
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LE1303
Airtight lid for mice (Modif.)
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LE1304
Flat wire bar lid (not airtight) (Modif.)
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LE1306
Drinking bottle for mice and rats (Modif.)
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LE1307
Food and drink dispensers for mice and rats (Modif.)
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LE1308
IR Frame for rearing detection (Modif.)
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LE1309
Food and drink dispensers for mice and rats for calorimetry (Modif.)
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LE1312
Plastic floor for rats (Modif.)
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LE1313
Wire bar lid with food access and drinking bottle (250 ml) for rats (Modif.)
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LE1314
Wire bar lid with food access and drinking bottle (250 ml) for mice (Modif.)
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LE1315
Food dispenser adaptor for calorimetry in mice (Modif.)
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LE1316
Plastic floor for mice (Modif.)
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LE1317
Grid floor for rats (Modif.)
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LE1318
Grid floor for mice (Modif.)
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LE405
O2/CO2 Analyser (Modif.)
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LE1310
Metabolic Chamber (215 ml) for calorimetry in rat neonate (Modif.)
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LE1311
Metabolic Chamber (550 ml) for calorimetry in rat neonate (Modif.)
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LE4002FL
Air Supply and Switching Unit for up to 2 Experimental Chambers (Modif.)
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LE4002FLN
Air Supply and Switching Unit and master pump for up to 2 Experimental (Modif.)
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LE4004FL
Air Supply and Switching Unit for up to 4 Experimental Chambers (Modif.)
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LE4004FLN
Air Supply and Switching Extension for up to 4 additional Experimental (Modif.)
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METAOXY
Metabolism Software Experimental Module - Calorimetry (respiratory met (Modif.)
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METAACT
Metabolism Software Experimental Module - Activity and rearing recordi (Modif.)
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METAINT
Metabolism Software Experimental Module - Food & Drink Intake Monitori (Modif.)
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METABOLISM
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